energy retention were improved by AC (PAC = 0.050, PAC = 0.045 and PAC = 0.020, respectively), or AV (PAV = 0.018, PAV = 0.013 and PAV = 0.012, respectively). In addition AV supplementation improved digestibility of ether extracts (PAV = 0.022) and crude protein (PAV = 0.042). Pancreatic trypsin activity was lower in AC (PAC = 0.027) or AV (PAV < 0.001) supplemented diets. An AC • AV effect on gizzard pH (PAC • AV = 0.034) was noted. Expression of interferon-g (PAV = 0.010), interleukin (IL) 18 (PAV = 0.048) and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (PAV = 0.035) in spleen were downregulated by AV. An upregulation of IL10 (PAC • AV = 0.018), IL18 (PAC×AV = 0.002) and IL22 (PAC×AV = 0.030) in the caecal tonsils was shown for the combined ACAV supplementation. In conclusion, dietary AC supplementation improved performance, nutrient digestibility and energy retention, irrespective of AV inclusion. This study has provided evidence for potential links between digestive and immune function indices with growth performance improvements.
کد مقاله : BTP-001
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